Addressing Security and Human Rights Challenges in Complex Environments Toolkit - Third Edition (DCAF and ICRC, June 2016)


Fragile! Handle with Care: Multinationals and Conflict


Child Rights and Security Handbook: An implementation companion to the Child Rights and Security Checklist (Global Affairs Canada, Barrick Gold and UNICEF Canada, 2018)


Child Rights and Security Checklist (Global Affairs Canada, Barrick Gold and UNICEF Canada, 2017)


Child Rights and Mining Toolkit (UNICEF, 2017)


Local Content: A Guidance Document for the Oil and Gas Industry (IPIECA, 2016)


Community grievance mechanisms in the oil and gas industry (IPIECA, 2015)


First Engagement: A Field Guide for Explorers (PDAC, 2015)


Land acquisition and resettlement: Lessons learned (ICMM, 2015)


Site-level Grievance and Community Response Mechanisms: A Practical Design and Implementation Guide for the Resource Development Industry (MAC, 2015)


Understanding Company-Community Relations Toolkit (ICMM, 2015)


Community Grievance Mechanism Toolbox (IPIECA, 2014)


A Business Reference Guide: United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UN Global Compact, 2013)


Approaches to Understanding Development Outcomes from Mining (ICMM, 2013)


FPIC and the Extractive Industries: A Guide to Applying the Spirit of Free, Prior and Informed Consent in Industrial Projects (IIED, 2013)


Indigenous Peoples and the Oil and Gas Industry: Context, Issues and Emerging Good Practice (IPIECA, 2012)


Operational Level Grievance Mechanisms: Good Practice Survey (IPIECA, 2012)


Preventing Conflict in Exploration: A Toolkit for Explorers and Developers (PDAC, World Vision Canada, CDA, 2012)


Community Development Toolkit (ICMM, 2012)


Piloting Principles for Effective Company-Stakeholder Grievance Mechanisms: A Report of Lessons Learned (Rees, 2011)


Good Practice Guide - Indigenous Peoples and Mining (ICMM, 2010)


Guidance on Responsible Business in Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas: A Resource for Companies and Investors (UN Global Compact and Principles for Responsible Investment-PRI-initiative, 2010)


Getting it Right: Making Corporate-Community Relations Work (Zandvliet and Anderson, 2009)


Good Practice Note: Addressing Grievances from Project-Affected Communities (IFC, 2009)


e3 Plus: A Framework for Responsible Exploration (PDAC, 2009)


Mapping Grievance Mechanisms in the Business and Human Rights Arena (CSR Initiative, 2008)


Rights-Compatible Grievance Mechanisms: A Guidance Tool for Companies and Their Stakeholders (CSR Initiative, 2008)


Resource/Extractive Companies and Indigenous Peoples Engagement: Recipe for Dialogue Project (BSR and FPW, 2004)


Working with Communities

Engagement with local communities is essential to ensure that extractives operations are planned and implemented in a way that supports the social and economic development of local communities. Furthermore, good community relations are key to a prevention-based approach to security management. The guidelines, tools and case studies contained in this section illustrate good practices and lessons learned from companies’ engagement with communities.

The Toolkit is a guidance document which addresses real-life security and human rights challenges indentified through engagement with many stakeholders. For each listed “Challenge”, the Toolkit outlines and summarises good practices and recommendations and provides practical tools such as checklists, templates and case studies. See Chapter 4 on “Working with communities”.

Fragile! Handle with Care: Multinationals and Conflict

This publication presents the lessons from the Multinational Corporations in Conflict-Affected Areas (MCAA) programme of the Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations (SOMO). As part of this programme, between 2013 and 2016, SOMO undertook research on extractives and agro-industries in five countries: Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Sierra Leone and South Sudan. These case studies provide many illustrations of business-related human rights abuses in a context of conflict and fragility, and provide valuable lessons on how companies operate in conflict-affected areas.

Based on these lessons, a number of recommendations are provided. Among others, it is recommended to MNCs to develop or improve company policies and strategies on how to deal with conflict settings, in line with international standards and guidelines, to prevent them from contributing to new or existing conflict.

Children and young people are particularly vulnerable to the impact of security arrangements in the context of extractive activities. In 2017, a multi-stakeholder working group of companies, governments, civil society organizations and expert consultants developed the Child Rights and Security Checklist. This Handbook is an implementation companion to the Checklist that can be used by companies and governments to improve the protection of children’s rights within security programs and reduce security-related human rights abuses of children and young people.

The Checklist is designed to help governments and companies assess the extent to which their security frameworks are attentive to and protective of children’s rights. It can be used by both extractive and non-extractive companies to identify, improve, and create greater stakeholder confidence in their protection of children’s rights within their security programs. In the same way it can be used by governments as a means of maintaining accountability for their public security agencies. The Checklist overall aims to help companies and governments in reducing security-related human rights violations against children and young people around the world.

The Toolkit includes 10 concise tools to help companies respect and advance children’s right in the context of mining operations. Of particular security and human rights interests are chapters 1) Impact assessment, 2) Stakeholder engagement, 3) Resettlement, 4) In-migration,  6) Security and 9) Protecting children from sexual violence. Each tool guides users in identifying key child rights issues and assists in developing appropriate management systems, strategies and performance indicators to respond to these issues. 

While this document is not focused on the security dimension of community engagement, its guidance on ‘local content’ can prove key to addressing security and human rights challenges proactively. ‘Local content’ is defined as the local resources a project or business utilises or develops, including direct and indirect employment of nationals, the procurement of local goods and services, the improvement of domestic skills capacity and the development of infrastructure. An inclusive and effective engagement with the ‘local content’ can create ‘shared value’ for all stakeholders and help prevent security issues caused by unaddressed impacts or unfulfilled commitments and community expectations. The guidance document offers good practices, templates and examples on the assessment, engagement and development of ‘local content’ as well as a small section on its role for operations in conflict-affected areas.  

This manual ‘provides a practical step-by-step guide to planning and implementing operational-level community grievance mechanisms (CMGs) and/or designing and managing corporate CMG frameworks.’ The document includes numerous tools for the planning, designing and implementation phases of a CMG and further illustrates them through practical examples. The tools and good practices are informed by the experiences of seven pilot operational-level CMGs conducted by IPIECA member companies. The manual is also available in Spanish here.



This Field Guide is aimed to help project managers working at the site level of a new mineral exploration project build strong and effective company-community relations. The Guide is divided into four phases: “Before You Leave”, “When You Arrive”, “While You Explore”, and “When you Leave”. Practical guidance, templates and communication tips are provided for each of the four phases. 

This guidance document is aimed to support ground practitioners address challenges that arise before, throughout and after resettlement activities responsibly. The document is divided into 10 modules that consist of key challenges, lessons learned and good practices, identified in 41 projects from around the world. The modules ‘include insights into planning for resettlement, engaging with stakeholders, compensating for loss of land and restoring livelihoods, addressing the needs of vulnerable people, overseeing construction, ongoing community development interventions, and monitoring impacts’. 

This guide identifies common on-the-ground design and implementation challenges that companies face in trying to establish site-level grievance mechanisms, and advises on how to address these challenges. The document highlights the spectrum of response mechanisms and provides practical and granular site-level guidance, particularly for companies operating in complex environments.  

This ICMM toolkit helps companies understand the factors that influence and shape community support and how to measure the extent to which these factors are present or absent at a particular operational site, among different stakeholder groups. Identifying the reasons why community support may be lacking at a project is the first step to developing targeted approaches for improving company-community relationships. The toolkit has been developed primarily for the management of site-level social performance and includes a range of practical examples, checklists and figures. 

This set of practical tools can be adapted by oil and gas companies and other organisations to address and manage community concerns as well as the impacts these concerns can have on business operations. The toolbox assists companies in creating and implementing Community Grievance Mechanisms and includes: 1) Training Pack, 2) How-To Guide, 3) Template Procedure, 4) Complaint Risk Assessment Tool, 5) Diagnostic Tool, and 6) Grievance Register.

This guide is aimed to illustrate the relevance of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples to business activities and to support meaningful and positive interaction between business and indigenous peoples. The Guide includes a description of each right in the UN Declaration and “suggests practical actions that business can take to respect and support each right, and examples to help illustrate those suggested actions”. See particularly the practical suggestions on Article 7 “Life, liberty and security”.

This report was developed to help corporate level staff understand and measure mining companies’ contributions on human and social development. It outlines a variety of tools and frameworks for designing, tracking and analysing development outcomes. The findings of these improved measurements assist corporate level staff in developing strategic approaches to realise the goal of contributing positively to the communities in which mining companies operate.

Free, prior and informed consent (FPIC) refers to the rights of local communities and indigenous peoples to be consulted in the planning and negotiations of industry activities, which may have a significant impact on their lives and environment. This Guide outlines a framework to help companies develop and apply the FPIC principles and thereby facilitate more sustainable and socially acceptable policies and practices.

This reference tool provides a summary of the policy and regulatory context relevant to the sector’s interaction with Indigenous Peoples, as well as an overview of specific issues and good practices for oil and gas companies to consider when operating in areas with Indigenous Peoples. The identified issues and practices are supplemented by seven case studies on the themes of engagement, impacts and opportunities.

This Good Practice Survey summarizes the key insights and concepts of the literature on community grievance mechanism most relevant to oil and gas companies. The survey includes “the criteria for effective grievance handling, basic procedural steps, elements of good practice and integration with existing management systems.” 

This Toolkit offers straightforward and practical five-step guidance "for preventing conflict through constructive community engagement in exploration". The step-by-step instructions are aimed to assist field staff and management in facilitating conflict sensitive engagement strategies in complex environments. 

This Toolkit consists of 20 tools that help analyse the positive and negative effects of mining at various levels and is aimed at fostering productive relationships, building capacity and progressing opportunities for the sustainability development of communities affected by mining and metals operations. The tools are divided into: 1) community development tools, 2) relationships tools, 3) planning tools, 4) assessment tools, 5) management tools, and 6) monitoring and evaluation tools.

This report outlines the outcomes and conclusions drawn from a pilot project testing the benefits of grievance mechanisms that are aligned with the ‘Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights’. Two of the pilot projects involved companies in the extractive industries: 1. Cerrejon Coal (mining sector, Colombia) and 2. Sakhalin II (oil and gas sector, Russia). The report highlights the key challenges, findings and lessons learned by the companies testing the principles of effective grievance mechanisms.

This Good Practice Guide is aimed to assist responsible mining companies in their efforts to establish constructive and positive relationships with Indigenous Peoples. The Guide offers practical user-friendly tools and case-studies covering each step of the project-cycle.

This guidance document “aims to assist companies in implementing responsible business practices in conflict-affected and high-risk areas consistent with the Global Compact Ten Principles.” It highlights key ‘challenges’ for companies in high-risk areas and identifies directly related ‘guidance points’ to help them improve their responsible conduct. See section 4 on ‘Local Stakeholder Engagement’.

This book is one of the most comprehensive and detailed analyses of company-community relations in complex environments. Based on extensive site visits at over 25 company operations around the world, the authors gathered numerous case studies and practical examples that not only identify a large range of good engagement practices, but also allow for a detailed insight into the varied perceptions of companies and local communities. Given the extensive efforts and resources this publication required, it is currently not freely available and must be purchased at Greenleaf Publishing as an e-book or hardcover. 

This Good Practice Note is aimed to assist companies develop and implement grievance mechanisms. The document outlines general principles of a good grievance mechanism and provides practical examples of implementation in different sectors (including the oil & gas and mining sector). Five key steps for grievance management are identified, which are all illustrated with tables, models and monitoring parameters. Lastly, the Good Practice Note outlines other relevant resources on project-level grievance mechanisms.

The e3 Plus framework combines principles, guidance and toolkits for exploration companies in three key areas of concern: ‘Social Responsibility’, ‘Environmental Stewardship’, and ‘Health and Safety’. The aim is to continuously improve the extractive industry’s performance in all three areas and to integrate the identified principles in all its exploration programs. For practical guidance on community relations see section 3.0 ‘Community Engagement’ in the ‘Social Responsibility’ toolkit.

This report summarises several grievance mechanisms designed to address business and human rights disputes. It includes company, industry, multi-industry, and national, regional, and international level mechanisms. For each mechanism the report maps “the standards applied, the means of access, the agents involved, the process (including the level of transparency), the types of outcomes, and any available enforcement mechanism.”

This guidance tool identifies overarching Principles for companies and their local stakeholders to jointly design effective rights-compatible grievance mechanisms and couples them with detailed and practical Guidance Points. These Guidance Points include detailed explanatory texts, lessons learned and key performance indicators.

This Guidebook attempts to facilitate constructive engagement and relationships between extractive companies and indigenous communities. The guide includes checklists, short questionnaires, good practices, mapping tools and case studies.

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